Agda UALib ↑

Continuous Relations*

This is the Relations.Continuous module of the Agda Universal Algebra Library.*

{-# OPTIONS --without-K --exact-split --safe #-}

module Relations.Continuous where

open import Relations.Discrete public


In set theory, an n-ary relation on a set A is simply a subset of the n-fold product A × A × ⋯ × A. As such, we could model these as predicates over the type A × A × ⋯ × A, or as relations of type A → A → ⋯ → A → 𝓦 ̇ (for some universe 𝓦). To implement such a relation in type theory, we would need to know the arity in advance, and then somehow form an n-fold arrow →. It’s easier and more general to instead define an arity type I : 𝓥 ̇, and define the type representing I-ary relations on A as the function type (I → A) → 𝓦 ̇. Then, if we are specifically interested in an n-ary relation for some natural number n, we could take I to be a finite set (e.g., of type Fin n).

Below we will define ContRel to be the type (I → A) → 𝓦 ̇ and we will call ContRel the type of continuous relations. This generalizes the discrete relations we defined in Relations.Discrete (unary, binary, etc.) since continuous relations can be of arbitrary arity. They are not completely general, however, since they are defined over a single type. Said another way, they are single-sorted relations. We will remove this limitation when we define the type of dependent continuous relations at the end of this module.

Just as Rel A 𝓦 was the single-sorted special case of the multisorted REL A B 𝓦 type, so too will ContRel I A 𝓦 be the single-sorted version of a completely general type of relations. The latter will represent relations that not only have arbitrary arities, but also are defined over arbitrary families of types.

To be more concrete, given an arbitrary family A : I → 𝓤 ̇ of types, we may have a relation from A i to A j to A k to …, where the collection represented by the “indexing” type I might not even be enumerable.1

We refer to such relations as dependent continuous relations (or dependent relations for short) because the definition of a type that represents them requires depedent types. The DepRel type that we define below manifests this completely general notion of relation.

Continuous and dependent relations

Here we define the types ContRel and DepRel. The first of these represents predicates of arbitrary arity over a single type A; we call these continuous relations.1 To define DepRel, the type of dependent relations, we exploit the full power of dependent types and provide a completely general relation type.

ContRel : 𝓥 ̇  𝓤 ̇  (𝓦 : Universe)  𝓥  𝓤  𝓦  ̇
ContRel I A 𝓦 = (I  A)  𝓦 ̇

DepRel : (I : 𝓥 ̇)  (I  𝓤 ̇)  (𝓦 : Universe)  𝓥  𝓤  𝓦  ̇
DepRel I 𝒜 𝓦 = Π 𝒜  𝓦 ̇

Here, the tuples of a relation of type DepRel I 𝒜 𝓦 will inhabit the dependent function type 𝒜 : I → 𝓤 ̇ (where the codomain may depend on the input coordinate i : I of the domain). Heuristically, we can think of an inhabitant of type DepRel I 𝒜 𝓦 as a relation from 𝒜 i to 𝒜 j to 𝒜 k to …. (This is only a rough heuristic since I could denote an uncountable collection.2)

Compatibility with general relations

It will be helpful to have some functions that make it easy to assert that a given operation is compatible with a given relation. The following functions serve this purpose.

module _ {I J : 𝓥 ̇} {A : 𝓤 ̇} where

 eval-cont-rel : ContRel I A 𝓦  (I  J  A)  𝓥  𝓦 ̇
 eval-cont-rel R 𝒶 = Π j  J , R λ i  𝒶 i j

 cont-compatible-op : Op J A  ContRel I A 𝓦  𝓥  𝓤  𝓦 ̇
 cont-compatible-op 𝑓 R  = Π 𝒶  (I  J  A) , (eval-cont-rel R 𝒶  R λ i  (𝑓 (𝒶 i)))

The first of these is an evaluation function which “lifts” an I-ary relation to an (I → J)-ary relation. The lifted relation will relate an I-tuple of J-tuples when the “I-slices” (or “rows”) of the J-tuples belong to the original relation. The second definition denotes compatibility of an operation with a continuous relation.

Readers who find the syntax of the last two definitions nauseating might be helped by an explication of the semantics of these deifnitions. First, internalize the fact that 𝒶 : I → J → A denotes an I-tuple of J-tuples of inhabitants of A. Next, recall that a continuous relation R denotes a certain collection of I-tuples (if x : I → A, then R x asserts that x “belongs to” or “satisfies” R). For such R, the type eval-cont-rel R represents a certain collection of I-tuples of J-tuples, namely, the tuples 𝒶 : I → J → A for which eval-cont-rel R 𝒶 holds.

For simplicity, pretend for a moment that J is a finite set, say, {1, 2, ..., J}, so that we can write down a couple of the J-tuples as columns. For example, here are the i-th and k-th columns (for some i k : I).

𝒶 i 1      𝒶 k 1
𝒶 i 2      𝒶 k 2
𝑎 i 3      𝒶 k 3    <-- (a row of I such columns forms an I-tuple)
  ⋮          ⋮
𝒶 i J      𝒶 k J

Now eval-cont-rel R 𝒶 is defined by ∀ j → R (λ i → 𝒶 i j) which asserts that each row of the I columns shown above belongs to the original relation R. Finally, cont-compatible-op takes a J-ary operation 𝑓 : Op J A and an I-tuple 𝒶 : I → J → A of J-tuples, and determines whether the I-tuple λ i → 𝑓 (𝑎 i) belongs to R.

Above we saw lifts of continuous relations and what it means for such relations to be compatible with operations. We conclude this module by defining the (only slightly more complicated) lift of dependent relations, and the type that represents compatibility of a dependent relation with an operation.

module _ {I J : 𝓥 ̇} {𝒜 : I  𝓤 ̇} where

 eval-dep-rel : DepRel I 𝒜 𝓦  (∀ i  (J  𝒜 i))  𝓥  𝓦 ̇
 eval-dep-rel R 𝒶 =  j  R  i  (𝒶 i) j)

 dep-compatible-op : (∀ i  Op J (𝒜 i))  DepRel I 𝒜 𝓦  𝓥  𝓤  𝓦 ̇
 dep-compatible-op 𝑓 R  =  𝒶  (eval-dep-rel R) 𝒶  R λ i  (𝑓 i)(𝒶 i)

 -- equivalent definition using Π notation
 dep-compatible'-op : (Π i  I , Op J (𝒜 i))  DepRel I 𝒜 𝓦  𝓥  𝓤  𝓦 ̇
 dep-compatible'-op 𝑓 R  =  Π 𝒶  (Π i  I , (J  𝒜 i)) , ((eval-dep-rel R) 𝒶  R λ i  (𝑓 i)(𝒶 i))

* Sections marked with an asterisk include new types that are more abstract and general than those presented elsewhere, but they are used only very rarely in other parts of the Agda UALib. Therefore, the sections marked * may be safely skimmed or skipped when first encountering them.

1 For consistency and readability, throughout the UALib we reserve two universe variables for special purposes: 𝓞 is reserved for types representing operation symbols; 𝓥 is reserved for types representing arities of relations or operations (see also Algebras.Signatures).

2 Because the collection represented by the indexing type I might not even be enumerable, technically speaking, instead of A i to A j to A k to …, we should have written something like TO (i : I) , A i.

← Relations.Discrete Relations.Quotients →